The Supreme People’s Procuratorate(SPP)
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The people’s procuratorates are State organs for legal supervision. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate is the highest procuratorial organ. It is mainly responsible for supervising regional procuratorates and special procuratorates to perform legal supervision by law and protecting the unified and proper enforcement of State laws. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate has to report its work to the NPC and its Standing Committee, to whom it is responsible, and accept their supervision.
The Supreme People’s Court(SPC)
The Supreme People’s Court is the highest trial organ in the country and exercises its right of trial independently. It is also the highest supervising organ over the trial practices of local people’s courts and special people’s courts at various levels. It reports its work to the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee. The right of appointment and removal of the president and vice presidents as well as members of the trial committee of the Supreme People’s Court lies with the National People’s Congress.
The State Council
The State Council, that is, the Central People’s Government, of the People’s Republic of China is the executive body of the supreme organ of state power; it is the supreme organ of State administration.
The President of the People’s Republic of China
In the event that the offices of both the President and the Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China fall vacant, the National People’s Congress shall elect a new President and a new Vice-President. Prior to such election, the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall temporarily act as the President of the People’s Republic of China.
China’s Electoral System
There are five central and local levels of people’s congresses in China. They are the National People’s Congress, the people’s congresses of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government, the people’s congresses of cities divided into districts, and autonomous prefectures, the people’s congresses of cities not divided into districts, municipal districts, counties and autonomous counties, and the people’s congresses of townships, ethnic minority townships and towns. The people’s congresses at all levels are constituted through democratic elections.
China’s Legal System
China’s legal system covers laws that fall under seven categories and three different levels. The seven categories are the Constitution and Constitution-related, civil and commercial, administrative, economic, social, and criminal laws and the law on lawsuit and non-lawsuit procedures. The three different levels are state laws, administrative regulations and local statutes.
China’s Legislative System
China is a unified multiethnic country with a unitary political system. To ensure that the legal system remains unified yet at the same time adapts to the uneven economic, political and cultural development or different areas, China practices a unified, multilevel legislative system.
National People’s Congress
The National People’s Congress (NPC) is the supreme organ of state power in China. It is composed of NPC deputies who are elected according to law from 35 electoral units from the people’s congresses of provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, the People’s Liberation Army, the deputy election council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Taiwan compatriots’ consultation election council. Each congress is elected for a term of five years. A total of 2,987 deputies were elected to the current 11th NPC before the first session was convened.